I am often asked what’s the hardest part of being a manager and my response is always, “having to have ‘the talks.'” I’m referring to those difficult conversations that no one likes having, but are necessary in order to improve performance, service, morale, attitude or any other host of issues that need to be brought to someone’s attention. It is a lousy thing to have to give someone negative feedback, but with practice and time it gets easier.
The problem is though, as managers we are entrusted with the contents of these discussions. We are expected to not speak about the details with other people who are not directly involved. We are expected to maintain our staff’s privacy. In my opinion it is one of the basic tenets of good management and professionalism. Unfortunately, this doesn’t always work both ways.
We have all worked in places and/or with colleagues who talk about everything. They spread their own business and sometimes the business of others around. This is their choice and if they want people to know what is happening, then it is on them. The problem that arises is the very same one that happens in schoolyards everywhere: the story never stays the same and becomes something very different and sometimes much worse than what it actually was.
Managers do not have the luxury of stepping in and correcting inaccurate details when they overhear them. We can not make announcements “setting the record straight.” We can not and should not participate in conversations about discussion we’ve had with our staff. Consequently, a lot of misinformation gets passed along as fact. We may seem like we are ignoring problems. We may be described as “disinterested.” But that is far from the truth. Actually we are treating you professionally and maintaining your privacy.
If you’re like me, someone who has a difficult time allowing misrepresentations of what I’ve said persist in my non-work life, knowing that this may be happening and recognizing that you can’t do anything about it is one of the most difficult pills to swallow. But you do because it is the right thing to do and because you recognize how destructive this can be and you don’t want to add to the problem.
Good managers maintain professionalism even when it’s the last thing they want to do. Ideally this would work both ways, but in reality it doesn’t. Good managers keep working to get to that ideal place.
August 10, 2008
I have been thinking a lot lately about the concept of transparency. There are projects going on, new people joining the staff, changes in policies and procedures at MPOW that require good communication and a level of transparency in order to make things go smoothly and to keep everyone as informed as they need and would like to be. I believe that transparency in communication, decision-making, procedures and policy is ideal and I support any effort to improve in this area.
However, more and more I am starting to think that an important and essential first or pre-step needs to happen and is often overlooked. This being: creating a climate of open communication. What I mean by this is a work environment where people are comfortable being honest and direct, sharing their opinions, without the fear of, not retribution, but of offending people. I know that someone will always be offended by something, I’m not that naive. We spend a lot of time coaching people on how to communicate more effectively and how to be better at giving feedback, but we don’t spend enough time on the other side of that equation; receiving feedback.
Receiving feedback is a skill. It takes a great deal of self-awareness, self-control, self-confidence, and self-esteem. It is something that with practice we can improve. I don’t have a 5 step improvement process for this, but I do have some key points that I try to keep in the back of my head.
1. I am secure in the knowledge that I am good at what I do. This is not conceit or arrogance. This is recognition that I am doing exactly what I want to be doing, what makes the best use of my skills and talents, and what I enjoy doing on a daily basis. It is reinforced by positive feedback from my staff, my colleagues, my supervisors, performance appraisals, and the fact that I still want to get up and go to work every morning.
2. What happens in my professional life does not necessarily have much, if any, bearing on my personal life. When I receive feedback about my work, it is just that. It is not a remark about my soul, personality, morality, intelligence, character, or who I am at the core of my being. If it was, I’d have a lot more issues that need to be addressed.
3. The people I work with are my colleagues and collaborators, not my enemies. There is no hidden agenda or conspiracy to see me fail. I consider what I am being told before I react. Is it relevant? Does it make a valid point? How can I change or improve the issue? What is the desired outcome and how do we get there?
4. I can’t please everyone. Being a manager puts you in the undesirable position of having to hear feedback that you sometimes can’t directly address or comment upon. You just have to hear it. We sometimes have to make decisions when there is no time to consider all outcomes and possibilities. A decision has to be made and we deal with the fallout later. Sooner or later someone will disagree or be unhappy. That is just the way it goes.
5. 9 times out of 10 it is not going to be catastrophic. There are very few decisions or actions that cannot be reversed or modified. We are not performing brain surgery, we are trying to help people. We are fortunate that we have rules that can be adjusted depending on a situation. This is not a military operation, we have many options and we can try as many as needed.
Through a lot of practice and self-improvement I have become someone who accepts and solicits feedback from my peers, colleagues and staff. I want to know what’s going on and how things can be better. I’m not going to be offended by what I am going to hear, no matter how bad someone thinks it is. I can guarantee that I have thought worse about myself than what I am going to be told.
Unfortunately, I don’t think we are there yet in our work environments. I think it has improved greatly, but I still see people getting emotional and personal about issues that are purely professional. I recognize that sometimes people care so much about their work that it is hard for them to not identify with it, but I also think that in cases like that too much can be a bad thing. You want to be open to what people have to say.
Another important point to consider is that not all criticism is equal. Is it coming from someone you really admire and respect or is it coming from a person who is always negative, never has anything positive to say and never has a solution to a problem; just the list of problems? If it is the latter, why do you care? Our most important critics are the people we admire, respect, and care about. When they stop giving you feedback, wake up, you have a problem.
I have no answers about how to change an environment into an open one. I think it is something that can be approached on two fronts: the first being locally, on a department or unit basis. A manager needs to create and foster this climate and model the behavior themselves. The second is from a top-down strategy. An organization must commit to becoming a haven of open communication. Everyone must practice what is preached.
June 15, 2008
Annual performance appraisal time has come and gone at MPOW and with it comes the ups and downs of giving and receiving feedback. One of the hardest things a manager has to do is provide feedback about a person’s performance. It is especially difficult if the feedback is negative, for aside from the discomfort that comes along with telling someone something they don’t want to hear, comes the potentially unpleasant experience of them telling you all sorts of things that you don’t want to hear. However, there are some tactics you can employ to make the experience go smoothly and help turn an uncomfortable situation into a positive and constructive one.
1. Be Clear: Know what you want to say and make sure you are saying it clearly. Write it out beforehand and practice the conversation that you want to have.
2. Be Specific: Address the exact issues. Avoid generalizations. Give examples of the behavior or performance that needs to be corrected or is at issue.
3. Emphasize the Positive: Don’t let the entire conversation be negative. If possible, emphasize and encourage what is working well. However, do not sandwich negative feedback in between positive comments. This may deemphasize the importance of the areas needing improvement. Begin or end the discussion with the positive.
4. Focus on the Behavior NOT the Person: This is not personal, it is professional. It has nothing to do with who someone is, but about the actions they exhibit while at work. Discuss specific behaviors and cite examples, do not make assumptions about or imply anything about a person’s personality, intelligence, demeanor, etc. The desired outcome of the discussion is a change in behavior, not a radical transformation of a person’s character.
5. Own the Feedback: Don’t pretend to be the messenger. You’re the manager, you’ve observed the areas of improvement, you’re performing the evaluation. Don’t try to kid yourself or your employee by acting like the criticism is coming from someplace else.
6. Don’t Provide Advice: Very often people don’t need advice on how to change poor performance- they usually know the cause and if it is a repetitive problem they have heard all the advice they can hear. Instead of offering your personal insight and advice, allow the person to take ownership of their problem and discuss a plan of improvement. Ask what they can do to change a situation. What can you work on together to reach the desired outcome? How can they work better? What will they do to improve their situation?
7. Discuss Expectations and Timelines: Clearly lay out expectations and the time frame in which to achieve them. Clearly define benchmarks and how they will be evaluated. Make sure that employees understand what is expected of them and that you will be watching for improvement. Make sure employees understand the consequences if they fail to change or improve behavior.
1. Don’t Justify or Argue your Position: Don’t lose your temper. Ever. Arguing will only make an uncomfortable situation worse and solves nothing.
2. Have Some Perspective: Remember that this is about specific behavior or instances. This is not personal and is not a judgment or indictment of you as a person. You’re having a discussion about how you interact with patrons at a service desk, not about the moral fiber of your soul.
3. Think Before you Respond: Listen to what is being said and consider it before responding. Ask questions, ask for clarification. Don’t interrupt or have a biting comeback for every comment. Consider what the feedback is about and why it is negative. Ask yourself if there is any truth to it before shooting off a response.
4. Don’t Sulk: Act like an adult, not a child. It is perfectly acceptable to give yourself some space while thinking about what has been said; however ignoring someone, sulking, or being nasty are not effective and mature responses to processing and handling negative feedback.
5. Choose Your Path: No matter what is said and discussed, ultimately what you do with feedback is your decision. You can choose to look at it as a learning and growth experience and use it to improve yourself and your work, or you can stew about it and let it consume you. Own your actions and decisions. Be honest with yourself- is the criticism something you have heard before and are struggling with? Do you need assistance in turning performance around? Are you happy in your work environment?
No one likes to hear anything negative about themselves. Giving someone negative feedback is not a fun experience. It is not something managers look forward to doing. The best we can hope for is that we take a bad situation and make it a positive one by honestly discussing issues and working together to develop strategies for improvement.
May 5, 2008
I was asked if I had any more advice on how to intellectually separate the professional/personal life and deal with the consequences that decisions in one have on the other. I am trying to avoid a lame, cop-out answer like, it boils down to your personality type, but I may not be able to steer clear from there. I thought about this a lot today and I think that there are several strategies that can be helpful here.
The main issue is when we, as managers, are forced to make uncomfortable decisions or move into an arena outside of our comfort zone. How do we not allow those incidents and feelings to invade our personal lives?
Sometimes we can’t. Sometimes we are forced to deal with a situation that just plain sucks from every angle and there is no graceful, pleasant solution and we end up taking that home with us. Through experience I have learned some ways to make this part of the manager job less painful.
1. Be honest and transparent from day one. Establishing a reputation as an honest, straight shooter who does not talk around a point, nor act evasive when asked a direct question goes a long way when having to deal with an unpleasant personnel situation. People want to hear the truth and know what is going to happen to them, vague or untrue responses will only add fuel to the fire and can make a situation go from bad to worse in a heartbeat.
2. Give constant positive and/or corrective feedback. I am constantly amazed when people are surprised that they are getting a less than stellar evaluation or are reprimanded for repetitive unacceptable behavior. A good manager discusses a behavior, conduct, or performance issue with the staff member the first time it happens and provides corrective or instructive feedback and sets clear expectations for change. On the flip side, positive reinforcement lets staff know that what they are doing is great and is encouraged. It is easier to point out horrible customer service when stellar customer service is praised. If a problem is recurring, it should be dealt with every single time it happens. If a disciplinary process exists, you may need to utilize it, and no one should be surprised that this is where the issue went.
3. Maintain trust. Staff are more apt to discuss issues honestly with you if they know that it won’t end up as Monday morning gossip. This one really speaks for itself. You can not be a successful manager if you can’t keep private information private.
4. Accept that people are the master of their own destiny. One of my favorite sayings is that, “I am not responsible for keeping anyone in a job. I am responsible for coaching, mentoring, providing feedback, setting goals and objectives, and working together with staff to create a positive work environment. After that, it is on you.” You can’t force someone to do what they need to do, nor can you force them to change. All you can do is help provide the tools, incentives, instructions and guidance to help them perform up to expectations. It is not your fault if they choose not to take advantage of what you are offering and then suffer the consequences. This is heavily tied to honest, open communication. You need to make sure that you are communicating expectations and assistance clearly and concisely. Sometimes referring a person to outside resources (i.e. HR or training & development) is a solution. Whatever the course of action, make sure you are clearly laying out the path that needs to be followed. Assist when necessary, but beyond that, you can’t make a person take the path.
5. Have a life outside work. I know this sounds trite and smug, but it is a lot easier to deal with work when you have something to look forward to when you leave at the end of the day. We have all been workaholics at one time or another. We have all put in the 14 hour days, but at some point it needs to end and a healthy balance of work and life needs to happen. Indulge in your favorite hobby, go out with friends and loved ones, go home and talk about something else. It is often said and it really is true, don’t take work home with you.
These are what I consider the important points when dealing with unpleasant work situations. Over the years I have learned the value and importance of each of them and put them into practice every day. There are still days, weeks, situations that leave me feeling quite beat up and bruised, but I get over them relatively quickly.
There was a time in my career when I took these types of interactions seriously to heart and would spend days feeling awful about them. At some point I learned and accepted all of the above and realized that situations at work die down over time. They do not define me as a human being, nor do they make a deep statement about my soul and character. We tend to get caught up in the moment, but in the end, the discomfort does pass.
The good news (sorta) is the more practice you get in dealing with these types of uncomfortable issues, the easier it gets the next time.
April 21, 2008
There is a great post over at Management Craft today. I can’t say, “Amen!!!!” enough about it. If you have ever worked for someone who says one thing and does another, you know the frustration that comes along with that type of management style.
I can’t reiterate this point enough. As a manager, don’t make promises that you can’t or won’t keep. Do not say one thing and then do another, or worse, do nothing. The other point that goes along with this is if you make a promise and it is going to take longer than anticipated or something is happening that is affecting what you are doing, let people know. Keep the communication flowing. Be honest. If you slacked off, admit it. If something came up and threw a wrench in the whole plan, let your staff know.
Lisa writes, “Great managers do what others don’t or won’t.” That is 100% true. As managers we have to be the bad guy sometimes. We have to have the uncomfortable conversations. We may have to step completely outside our comfort zones and be people we normally aren’t in the course of a day’s work. And we have to understand that we can’t internalize or take any of it personally.
Great managers do what they say they will, but they also know how to maintain an objective, impersonal perspective. I have learned that I am really bad when having to deal with coworkers who cannot accept constructive or professional criticism. I am very aware of how I give criticism. I keep it simple and cordial. I never make it a personal attack or say it in a way that it could be perceived as such. However, some people cannot separate the professional from the personal and that can cause problems.
Being able to separate the two is a key to success. While I do identify as a librarian and a manager, I know that is not who I am in the core of my being. There is much more to me than what I do for a living and when someone comments or criticizes my job performance, I take it as such.
I wasn’t always like this, and I was much more miserable in my career. The best advice I can give anyone, is do your job to the best of your ability, do what you say you will, and don’t take it personally.
October 26, 2007
Through the Looking Glass: Future Business Challenges for the Academic Library by James G. Neal, Columbia University
Thinking about the experience we have had this week, the metaphor is Alice through the looking glass, us wondering if we could pass through the other sic and experience the business side of libraries. Having experiences with Tweedle Dum and Tweedle Dee through time, played chess with the queen, etc. We spent the bulk of our week talking about strategy, change, culture.
Librarians in the academic environments need to be aware of the business challenges that are facing the university and the library.
Holy cow do we have a lot to think about!!!!!!!! There are many shifting values in the library and we need to use our tools and abilities to change the culture and to personalize the library experience. Many of the core services and products of the library will remain, but will need to be integrated to provide a more self-service experience for patrons. James Neal provided us with 30 action items or ideas that libraries need to focus on in the future and now. Most focused on technology and building more digital services and a robust digital environment for patrons. The prevailing message, at least to me, from his presentation was that libraries need to become partners, owners and stakeholders in many of the changes and new services and technologies that are occurring. We need to step out of our traditional circles of influence and look for collaborations and partnerships in places where at one point in time we may not have belonged, but now it is necessary for our input, skills, resources, and talents.
October 25, 2007
What we feel are the characteristics of Good Managers:
- led by example
- open minded
- no micromanaging
- remembers we are people with feelings
- clear expectations
- admits mistakes
- encourages input
- private criticism
- direct communication
- is an advocate
Managers exhibit two types of behaviors:
directive (task): very much about telling people what to do, when they need to do it, etc.
supportive (relationship): help manage relationships
As managers we need to look at staff competencies and commitment when deciding which approach to use.Skilled Communicators:
- Communicates what in a timely manner
- allows colleagues to feel good about what they do and how they do it
- timely so others can make accurate decisions
Think about how you prefer to take in information? Use what is called the “Z model of decision making.” It walks you through the different ways information is taken in and perceived.
Our roles and responsibilities as managers should be clear to our staff:
- define performance results required
- establish performance expectations
- provide on-going coaching and feedback
- communicating goal re-alignment as necessary
- hold employees accountable
- provide resources needed for development
When we manage our staff we should make sure that we don’t talk about attitudes and attributes, but about actions. A lot of what we think of as attitude, is behavior (rolling eyes, huffing and puffing, etc.). There will be a tangible behavioral quality to what people are doing. Our job as managers is to figure out what they are saying or doing and how it affects others.
Feedback is about what people are doing that is making your work harder or easier. Giving negative feedback is harder than positive. Sometimes it is inappropriate to give positive feedback in front of others. Make feedback behavioral that way it is not personal or vague. Remember you are talking about a person’s livelihood. The intention behind feedback should be to enable success in that livelihood. At the end of the day you are not an ogre because you have to get rid of someone, you are doing your job as a boss.
After you give feedback, listen to the response, if it is defensive resend the feedback message until they get it. Set new expectations and maintain the relationship.
A lot of times you are coaching people to do stuff that you don’t know how to do. Getting people to be successful by setting goals, asking questions, and encouragement. You are not accountable for getting them to do what they need to do, they are. This helps create a work environment where people are comfortable and enjoy coming to work. You create a relationship where a person feels valued and supported and are stretching the boundaries of the person they can be. You are not going to coach anyone successfully if they are not willing to work or accept the coaching.
Coaching is about helping people set goals and improve performance. Mentors help you find wisdom. This is different from coaching. Mentors don’t have to be higher in the organization. You can mentor at different levels.
Everything you are asking your staff needs to be aligned with the departmental and organizational goals. By asking staff members to write goals and objectives, you can see if they are aligned with the department and organization.
It doesn’t cost a lot to appreciate people so try to establish rewards that are not money. Take time to work with your staff.
In times of change, your staff need to know that they are valued, they belong, how they are doing and they have a future. The future may not be in our organization and that is okay.
Another excellent and rewarding day. There was a tremendous amount of food for thought. At the end of the day, I feel very validated in the way I manage my staff. A lot of the techniques I heard today are ones that I have been actively using in my department. The bottom line that keeps being driven home is that management is hard and requires a lot of work. I think the subtext is: if you don’t want to put in the time and effort, you shouldn’t be doing it. As I think about all of the time and effort I have already expended managing my department this year, I can’t imagine not doing this type of work. I feel really good about where I am and where I am going.
October 25, 2007
Presentation by Lynda Aiman-Smith, Associate Professor, Management, Innovation & Entrepreneurship, College of Management, NCSU
Life-cycle Concept of Services
- Introductory Stage
- Growth Stage
- Maturity Stage
- Decline Stage
Without an idea champion, no project will live. An idea champion sells the idea and gathers resources to implement the project. Most times the resource gathering is done creatively and under the radar. Idea champions get people excited about projects. There is an equal chance that this project will fail, as it will succeed.
When resource planning and allocating for projects, always ask who the idea champion is for each project. This gives you good indication to whether the project will succeed.
Once you move towards design and prototyping you need to look towards your customers.
In each phase ask: who is the idea champion, who is affected, who cares, what competencies are needed or will need to change, what technology exists or needs to be created?
So far this has been the most valuable day. We worked in our project groups and I was very fortunate to be grouped with three other librarians who are working on the same project I am. We bounced a lot of great ideas off of one another and really worked through some of the finer details of what we are doing and how we are doing it. The evaluative tools we learned today were very useful in figuring out the granularity of the process and who is involved in each step.
Most importantly, I met three other people who I can email and talk about my project. I know I am not alone in what I am trying to accomplish and I have a new support network.
Lynda Aiman-Smith is an extremely engaging speaker and is very upbeat and motivating.
Presentation by Ted Baker, Assistant Professor, Management, Innovation, & Entrepreneurship, College of Management, NCSU
“Strategy” denotes an organization’s highest level objectives and the integrated set of choices it makes and implements in attempting to meet these objectives.
Some leading perspectives on strategy:
- Porter’s “five forces” (new entrants, buyer power, supplier power, substitutes, and rivalry) and “generic strategies” (overall cost leadership, differentiation, focus)
- The “resource-based view
- “Core competence”
- “SWOT” (strengths, opportunities, weaknesses and threats)
- analysis (venerable, atheoretical)
Everyone doesn’t think the same way!
What is strategic management?
- Something that doesn’t exist without clarity of goals.
- Strategy follows goals.
- Without and overarching set of goals, there can not be strategy.
- Creation of valuable, distinctive position
- Trade offs among incompatible alternative activities
- Driving complementaries and fit among activities
- Deciding what not to do and what to stop doing
Constructing a Strategic Initiative
- Three levels: values proposition, business model, business strategy
- Value proposition is the foundation, everything based off of it
- if you have a well founded, adaptable value proposition, you’ll be successful
- VP: what, who, why
- Business Model: what, who, why, how
- Business Strategy: what, who, why, how, when, wherw
What is a Business Model?
- Gives you a product description. If you can’t tell someone what your product is, then you have a problem.
Tells you the main activities, what it does for the customer, the advantages and sustainability.
What is a Business Strategy?
- tells you where and when
It became increasingly evident throughout the presentation and discussion that being able to create a concise and effective values proposition is an essential skill when proposing a new service, strategy, change or goal. The VP can be equated to the “elevator pitch” or “30 second pitch” that we hear a lot about in Hollywood and television. After spending 20 minutes trying to write a succinct and effective VP statement, I can attest that it is not easy. It is definitely a practice makes perfect and trial and error process. I suspect it gets easier the more you do it. It also became apparent that if you can write an effective VP statement, forming a strategic plan is much easier.
Is Change Good? Change is unavoidable and if managed poorly will result in failure. This failure can be attributed to many factors including: flawed vision, resistance, and a culture entrenched in the way it has always been done. Sometimes we have no choice but to change. This happens when there are outside forces driving the change. Many times this is due to technological changes, a shift in organizational priorities, or economics.
Reactions and readiness to change is varied. Sometimes reactions to change can be drastic (people leaving, or active resistance), sometimes it is more passive (acquiescence), and sometimes it is accepted. These reactions are caused by a variety of factors: fear, perception of loss or gain, personality, or trust.
As managers we need to help staff manage change. It is important to make people feel valued and heard, and to provide them with the context and information needed to understand why a change is taking place. You can force change, but the results may not be pretty and you may not feel comfortable doing it.
I have worked in corporate America and hated it. Almost everything I felt today reinforced those feelings of hatred. I though a lot of what was presented today was useful- particularly the tools and a lot of the insights into strategic management that were discussed. However, I feel like there was a level of cynicism that was seriously off the charts for me. At the end of the day I almost believed that my positive attitude and belief that hard work has its rewards, was all complete crap and meant nothing. It was a sort of painful realization, but at the same time I refuse to believe that it is all completely wrong and is not going to help me.
Something else that I found myself disagreeing with was the proposition that personalities change and are changeable. I don’t believe that. I believe that you can change or affect people’s behaviors or habits, but changing their personality….not so sure about that. I haven’t successfully seen it happen.
I didn’t totally drink the Haterade all day, I did like some parts of the day. What I found extremely valuable was value proposition and how to develop one. Learning how to pitch the “elevator speech” was a great exercise and had me thinking about large picture projects in terms of the most important and powerful elements.
October 22, 2007
Presentation by Dr. Jose Picart, Vice Provost for Diversity and African-American Affairs, NCSU
Libraries continue to struggle with the idea of being a business or adopted a business model. One of the facets of this model is to figure out where diversity fits and how we can customize our products and services to our different patron needs.
The biggest challenge is trying to define and understand what is diversity. A few definitions from the group:
- a gathering of differences and similarities
- recognizing and accepting (if not agreeing) what ways we are different from one another
- valuing and blending the differences
- broadly defined, has benefits and challenges, results from the interaction between people who are difference and everyone is valued, respected, and included.
Once we understand what diversity is, we need to know how is presents itself in the library:
- patrons: students, faculty, staff, alumni, affiliates, etc.
- staff: faculty, professional, para-professional, clerks, etc.
- subject expertise or specialty
- gender, race, sexual orientation, religion, etc.
- public services versus non-public services
- administration versus the rest of the staff
- tenured versus non-tenured
- digital divide: those who have their own technology or possess high skills versus those who don’t
- MLS versus non-MLS
- day versus night staff
- undergraduate versus graduate students
Libraries perform many functions and hold similar values to businesses:
- excellent customer service
- budget and fiscal responsibilities
- facilities management
- connecting people with information resources
- rapid turn around time or delivery or materials
- instruction, reference, ILL, printing, photocopying, document delivery, lending, borrowing
- off site shelving/storage
- managing these services
- interacting with vendors- publishers
- partnering with other campus units or consortia
- training and staff development
- publicizing events and services: blogs, wikis, web sites, campus and/or library orientations
- public services referrals
- mission/vision/values/strategic planning for the future
- internal and external customers
- competing for donors or funding
- valuable campus real estate
- services which we don’t make, but actually lose money providing
- provide IT support
We also have mechanisms in place to tell whether or not we are doing a good job:
- patron feedback
- circulation/gate count/download statistics
- financial support from campus and/or donors
- new services
- staff turnover and retention
- attendance at events or classes
- number of ILL requests processed
- turn around time of material delivery
- partnerships and collaborations with other organization both on and off campus
- expansion of collection or numbers of volumes sent to off site facilities
I really enjoyed this presentation and it got me thinking a bit broadly. I am not sure if this is really the “matter of survival” that is being portrayed?????? I may argue that more problems are issues are centered around situational or position than with diversity. I think we need to listen to the voices that we may not have been paying attention to previously, and that will help us drive change or re-shape our environments.